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(See the NOTES for information about these languages, dictionaries, and types of people.)
Languages of origin
Regions in which the word is used
Types of people who tend to use the word
- Religious: Jews who are engaged in religious observance and have some Jewish education
- Orthodox: Jews who identify as Orthodox and observe halacha (Jewish law)
- Jews: Jews of diverse religious backgrounds and organizational involvements
- Camp: Jews who attend or work at a Jewish overnight summer camp
- Israel: Diaspora Jews who feel connected to Israel and have spent time there
- Older: Jews who are middle-aged and older
- Younger: Jews in their 30s or younger
- Non-Jews: (words that have spread outside of Jewish networks)
- Ashkenazim: Jews with Ashkenazi heritage
- Sephardim: Jews with Sephardi or Mizrahi heritage
- Organizations: People involved in a professional or volunteer capacity with Jewish nonprofit organizations
- Ethnic: Jews whose Jewish identity is primarily ethnic
- Syrian: Jews with recent ancestry in Syria
- Persian: Jews with recent ancestry in Iran
- Bukharian: Jews with ancestry in Central Asia, such as Uzbekistan and Tajikistan
- Juhuro: Jews with ancestry in the Caucasus region, such as Azerbaijan and Dagestan, also known as Kavkazi, Gorsky, or Mountain Jews
- Chabad: Jews affiliated with the Chabad Lubavitch movement
- Russian: Jews whose ancestors were Russian-speaking Jews and migrated to English-speaking countries from the Soviet Union or Russia from the 1980s to the present
Dictionaries in which the word appears
- The New Joys of Yiddish, by Leo Rosten and Lawrence Bush (New York, 2003).
- Yiddish and English: A Century of Yiddish in America, by Sol Steinmetz (Tuscaloosa, 1986).
- The JPS Dictionary of Jewish Words, by Joyce Eisenberg and Ellen Scolnic, (Philadelphia, 2001).
- The Joys of Hebrew, by Lewis Glinert (New York, 1992).
- Frumspeak: The First Dictionary of Yeshivish, by Chaim Weiser (Northvale, 1995).
- Dictionary of Jewish Usage: A Popular Guide to the Use of Jewish Terms, by Sol Steinmetz (Lanham, MD, 2005).
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