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  • achron

    n. "Latter-day religious authorit[y]... scholar...of the Renaissance and later times[.]" (Glinert).

  • Adar

    n. The sixth month of the Jewish calendar year (or twelfth if counting from Nisan).

  • admor

    n. A Hassidic spiritual leader.

  • Adonai

    "Literally, 'my Lord', another word for God." (JPS)

  • aggadah

    n. Parts of the Talmud and Midrash that do not deal with law, including stories, fables, and sayings.

  • akum

    n. A Talmudic term for a heathen.

  • aliyah

    n. "Calling to the reading of the Torah." (Glinert)

  • Amalek

    n. The biblical name of the nomadic people descended from Esau who became the enemies of the people of Israel.

  • Amidah

    n. The Shemoneh Esrei prayer.

  • amora

    n. A Talmudic sage whose teachings comprise the Gemara. "Amoraim are contrasted with the tannaim, ancient rabbis who are quoted in the Mishnah" (JPS).

  • amud

    n. Page (in a prayerbook).

  • ani maamin

    n. The thirteen articles of Jewish faith written by Maimonides, each beginning with the phrase "ani maamin" ("I believe"). "The twelfth of which says, I believe believe with complete faith in the coming of the Messiah. Even though he may tarry I will wait for him on any day that he may come'" (JPS).

  • apikoros

    n. Heretic, non-believer, especially one with great knowledge of Judaism.

  • Av

    n. The eleventh month of the Jewish calendar (or fifth if counting from Nisan).

  • baal koreh

    n. The individual who chants Torah from the scroll at a synagogue. Sometimes used to refer specifically to a person capable of learning and chanting an entire parsha, or to a professional/paid reader as opposed to an amateur.

  • Baal Shem Tov

    n. Rabbi Israel ben Eliezer, widely regarded as the founder of Hasidic Judaism.

  • baal-teshuva

    n. A Jew from a secular background who chooses to become observant.

  • baruch haba

    interj. "Welcome!"

  • baruch tihiyeh

    interj. "May you be blessed."

  • bedika

    n. Inspection or search, especially with regard to preparations for Passover.